2.G(a) - Fireworks

Short description

In this sub-category of 2.G(a) - Other product use: Fireworks Germany reports NOx, SOx, CO, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, Cu, Pb and Zn emissions from fireworks.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF
2.G(a) Other Product use: Fireworks CS NS and association D, CS

Methodology

In 2019, measurements were made by a Finnish laboratory for the VPI – Verband der pyrotechnischen Industrie (Association of the pyrotechnical industry) of dust emissions during the burning of fire works. The experiments were made in a container in which the whole fireworks were burned.

In 2020, VPI and UBA had an intensive information exchange, in which the VPI presented the results of the measurements to the UBA. The different emission factors were discussed and finally based on the expert judgement it was decided which EFs shall be used for the reporting. In the next step the activity data were updated more differentiated.

Furthermore, the other EFs have been discussed resultung in some changes to these values.

The results are presented below. In February 2021 the VPI has published an article in the paper “Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics” a description of the experiment together with the measurement results1).

Activity data

For the calculation of the activity data the following formula is used:

AD = production + import – export – disposal + returnprevious year – returnrecent year

The production, disposal, return from the year before and return of the year data are yearly updated by the VPI.

Import and export: For the import and export data statistical data from the statistical federal office of Germany were taken (foreign statistics of federal office of statistics)2).

The sold amounts of fireworks have increased strongly from 1990 to 1995. From 1995 to 1997 the emissions were relatively high but decreased from 1997 to 2005. Since then, the emissions have been relatively constant with small fluctuations.

Return: Amount of unsold fireworks returned to producer

Disposal: Amount of disposed unsold fireworks damaged during transport from producer to seller

Emission factors

The emission factors of SO2, CO, NOx, Cu, Pb and Zn are the Default-EFs derived from the EMEP Guidebook3), page 22, table 3-14: Tier 2 emission factor for source category 2.D.3.i, 2.G Other solvent and product use, Other, Use of Fireworks.

Table 1: Default emission factors applied, in g/t product

Default-EF
SO2 3.020
CO 7.150
NOx 260
Cu 444
Pb 784
Zn 260

The emission factors for PM10, PM2.5 and TSP are measured values from the VPI.

Table 2: Country-specific PM emission factors applied, in g/t product

PM10 PM2.5 TSP
New Years Eve Rest of Year New Years Eve Rest of Year New Years Eve Rest of Year
1990-2004 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
2005 47.509,31 72.317,11 38.129,60 57.167,68 47.509,31 72.317,11
2006 45.793,40 71.986,67 36.930,61 56.906,46 45.793,40 71.986,67
2007 45.174,65 72.071,88 36.615,74 56.973,82 45.174,65 72.071,88
2008 45.955,36 71.471,31 37.390,41 56.499,06 45.955,36 71.471,31
2009 45.701,68 70.204,58 37.132,12 55.497,69 45.701,68 70.204,58
2010 44.826,79 69.253,15 36.536,80 54.745,57 44.826,79 69.253,15
2011 44.068,30 68.877,53 36.121,87 54.448,64 44.068,30 68.877,53
2012 45.566,16 69.993,91 37.527,36 55.331,16 45.566,16 69.993,91
2013 46.098,42 67.212,39 38.026,91 53.132,33 46.098,42 67.212,39
2014 46.621,17 67.680,72 38.595,22 53.502,55 46.621,17 67.680,72
2015 47.474,24 67.313,58 39.383,93 53.212,31 47.474,24 67.313,58
2016 47.523,35 66.094,38 39.539,55 52.248,52 47.523,35 66.094,38
2017 47.853,44 65.938,58 39.907,83 52.125,36 47.853,44 65.938,58
2018 48.270,00 63.519,57 39.713,09 50.213,10 48.270,00 63.519,57
2019 48.085,00 63.217,87 40.033,58 49.974,60 48.085,00 63.217,87

The EMEP Guidebook offers Default-EFs for the pollutants Ar, Hg, Ni and Cr. But the VPI has proofed that these emissions does not occur in Germany. And the VPI has further proofed that Pb emissions does not anymore occur since 2003. See the following explanations:

As and Hg: For As and Hg the members of the VPI have confirmed that Ar and Hg are not anymore used since 1980. Since About 1980 the explosives administrative regulation (Sprengverwaltungsvorschrift) is regulating which substances are allowed to be used and As and Hg are forbidden to be used. Since 2003 the DIN EN 14035:2003 went in force, which did forbit these substances. The actual follow up norm DIN EN 15947-5 was published in February 2016 and describes the german implementation of the harmonized and in the official journal of the European union 2017, C 149/2 published norm EN 15947:2015.

Pb: As the DIN EN 14035:2003 entered into force as from 2003, which did forbid this substance, there are no Pb-emissions from fireworks from 2003 onwards. The actual follow up norm DIN EN 15947-5 was published in February 2016 and describes the german implementation of the harmonized and in the official journal of the European union 2017, C 149/2 published norm EN 15947:2015.

Cd: The members of the VPI were asked and did explain, that Cd was never used, because it has no pyrotechnical effect. Since 2013 Cd is on the candidates list of the substances of Very High Concern (SVHC), published according article 59, para. 10 of the REACH-ordinance.

Ni: The members of the VPI informed that Ni was never used, because it has no pyrotechnical effect. It is part of the harmonized assessment according the ordinance (EG) Nr. 1272/2008 (CLP). Belonging to this, it is assessed as cancerogen category 2.

Cr: According the information from the members of the VPI Cr is not anymore used since the beginning of the 1980. Since 2012 (REACH Annex XIV (Ordinance (EU) Nr. 125/2012) Cr was implemented in the REACH Annex XIV. So from that year a permission duty is necessary. So far, none of the fireworks producers has requested for a permission.

Recalculations

Activity data has changed as follows:

Table 3: Change of AD between Submission 2020 and Submission 2021, in t

1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 13,939 51,421 26,283 28,856 30,491 33,396 34,461 30,075 31,440 29,795 33,086 29,131 33,241 34,999 32,572 33,936 32,980
during the year 4,130 7,447 10,906 7,506 10,755 8,235 8,088 7,521 8,007 7,499 8,137 7,247 8,465 8,832 9,487 8,544 9,088
SUM 18,069 58,869 37,188 36,362 41,247 41,631 42,550 37,595 39,446 37,294 41,223 36,378 41,706 43,830 42,059 42,480 42,068
Submission 2020 SUM 17,957 66,272 48,355 38,148 43,487 44,705 42,228 41,839 42,652 38,638 42,857 37,847 45,164 45,656 45,208 44,111 46,462
Change 112 -7,403 -11,167 -1,786 -2,240 -3,073 322 -4,244 -3,206 -1,344 -1,634 -1,469 -3,458 -1,826 -3,149 -1,631 -4,394

The emissions from As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Ni were deleted. The VPI proofed that these emissions does not occur. For Pb the emissions are from 2003 onwards changed to NA because the VPI proofed that the usage of Pb is forbidden since 2003 by a DIN Norm. The emissions of CO, Cu, NOx, SOₓ, Zn and Pb are changed because of changed AD. The emissions of PM10, PM2.5 and TSP are changed because of changed AD and new EFs from the VPI.

Table 4: Change of emissions between Submission 2020 and Submission 2021, in t

Pollutant Source 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018
Submission 2020 As 0,024 0,088 0,064 0,051 0,057 0,061 0,060 0,059 0,062
Submission 2021 New Years Eve NA
Submission 2021 rest of the year
Difference -0,024 -0,088 -0,064 -0,051 -0,057 -0,061 -0,060 -0,059 -0,062
Submission 2020 Cd 0,027 0,098 0,072 0,057 0,063 0,068 0,067 0,065 0,069
Submission 2021 New Years Eve NA
Submission 2021 rest of the year
Difference -0,027 -0,098 -0,072 -0,056 -0,063 -0,068 -0,067 -0,065 -0,069
Submission 2020 CO 128,392 473,843 345,740 272,759 304,960 326,443 323,239 315,392 332,201
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 99,664 367,662 187,921 206,322 224,792 250,241 232,888 242,640 235,805
Submission 2021 rest of the year 29,530 53,247 77,976 53,664 57,247 63,145 67,833 61,090 64,979
Difference 0,802 -52,934 -79,843 -12,773 -22,920 -13,057 -22,518 -11,662 -31,417
Submission 2020 Cr 0,280 1,034 0,754 0,595 0,665 0,712 0,705 0,688 0,725
Submission 2021 New Years Eve NA
Submission 2021 rest of the year
Difference -0,280 -1,034 -0,754 -0,595 -0,665 -0,712 -0,705 -0,688 -0,725
Submission 2020 Cu 7,973 29,425 21,470 16,938 18,937 20,271 20,072 19,585 20,629
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 6,189 22,831 11,670 12,812 13,959 15,539 14,462 15,067 14,643
Submission 2021 rest of the year 1,834 3,307 4,842 3,332 3,555 3,921 4,212 3,794 4,035
Difference 0,050 -3,287 -4,958 -0,793 -1,423 -0,811 -1,398 -0,724 -1,951
Submission 2020 Hg 0,001 0,004 0,003 0,002 0,002 0,003 0,003 0,003 0,003
Submission 2021 New Years Eve NA
Submission 2021 rest of the year
Difference -0,001 -0,004 -0,003 -0,002 -0,002 -0,003 -0,003 -0,003 -0,003
Submission 2020 Ni 0,539 1,988 1,451 1,144 1,280 1,370 1,356 1,323 1,394
Submission 2021 New Years Eve NA
Submission 2021 rest of the year
Difference -0,539 -1,988 -1,451 -1,144 -1,280 -1,370 -1,356 -1,323 -1,394
Submission 2020 NOx 4,669 17,231 12,572 9,919 11,089 11,871 11,754 11,469 12,080
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 3,624 13,370 6,834 7,503 8,174 9,100 8,469 8,823 8,575
Submission 2021 rest of the year 1,074 1,936 2,835 1,951 2,082 2,296 2,467 2,221 2,363
Difference 0,029 -1,925 -2,903 -0,464 -0,833 -0,475 -0,819 -0,424 -1,142
Submission 2020 Pb 14,078 51,957 37,911 29,908 33,439 35,795 35,443 34,583 36,426
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 10,928 24,809 4,755 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Submission 2021 rest of the year 3,238 3,593 1,973 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Difference 0,088 -23,555 -31,182 -29,908 -33,439 -35,795 -35,443 -34,583 -36,426
Submission 2020 PM10 6622 4832 3812 4262 4562 4517 4408 4642
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 2674 1367 1371 1409 1662 1548 1624 1592
Submission 2021 rest of the year 468 685 543 554 594 627 563 577
Difference -3480 -2780 -1898 -2298 -2306 -2342 -2220 -2473
Submission 2020 PM2.5 3442 2512 1981 2215 2371 2348 2291 2413
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 2132 1090 1100 1149 1378 1288 1354 1310
Submission 2021 rest of the year 370 541 429 438 470 496 445 456
Difference -940 -880 -452 -628 -523 -565 -491 -647
Submission 2020 SO2 54,230 200,141 146,033 115,207 128,808 137,882 136,529 133,214 140,314
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 42,096 155,292 79,374 87,146 94,947 105,696 98,367 102,486 99,599
Submission 2021 rest of the year 12,473 22,491 32,935 22,667 24,180 26,671 28,651 25,803 27,446
Difference 0,339 -22,358 -33,724 -5,395 -9,681 -5,515 -9,511 -4,926 -13,270
Submission 2020 TSP 1972 7279 5311 4190 4684 5014 4965 4845 5103
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 725 2674 1367 1371 1409 1662 1548 1624 1592
Submission 2021 rest of the year 259 468 685 543 554 594 627 563 577
Difference -988 -4137 -3259 -2276 -2721 -2758 -2790 -2657 -2934
Submission 2020 Zn 4,669 17,231 12,572 9,919 11,089 11,871 11,754 11,469 12,080
Submission 2021 New Years Eve 3,624 13,370 6,834 7,503 8,174 9,100 8,469 8,823 8,575
Submission 2021 rest of the year 1,074 1,936 2,835 1,951 2,082 2,296 2,467 2,221 2,363
Difference 0,029 -1,925 -2,903 -0,464 -0,833 -0,475 -0,819 -0,424 -1,142

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2018, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

The uncertainty for the AD is given as 10%.

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned.