2.G(a) - Fireworks

Short description

In this sub-category of 2.G(a) - Other product use: Fireworks Germany reports NO,,x,,, SO,,x,,, CO, TSP, PM,,10,,, PM,,2.5,,, Cu, Pb and Zn emissions from fireworks.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF
2.G(a) Other Product use: Fireworks CS NS and association D, CS

Method

In the year 2019 measurements were made by a finish laboratory for the VPI – Verband der pyrotechnischen Industrie (Association of the pyrotechnical industry) of dust emissions during the burning of fire works. The experiments were made in a container in which the whole fireworks were burned. In 2020 the VPI and the UBA had an intensive information exchange, in which the VPI presented the results of the measurements to the UBA. The different emission factors were discussed and finally based on the expert judgement it was decided which EFs shall be used for the reporting. In the next step the activity data were updated more differentiated. Further a discussion of the other EFs was made, which led to some changes in the EFs. The results are presented below. In February 2021 the VPI has published an article in the paper “Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics” a description of the experiment together with the measurement results1).

Activity data

For the calculation of the activity data the following formula is used:

AR = production + import – export – disposal + return of the year before – return of the year

The production, disposal, return from the year before and return of the year data are yearly updated by the VPI.

Import and export: For the import and export data statistical data from the statistical federal office of Germany were taken (foreign statistics of federal office of statistics)2).

The sold amounts of fireworks have increased strongly from 1990 to 1995. From 1995 to 1997 the emissions were relatively high but decreased from 1997 to 2005. Since then, the emissions have been relatively constant with small fluctuations.

Emission factors

The emission factors of SO₂, CO, NOₓ, Cu, Pb and Zn are the Default-EFs derived from the EMEP Guidebook3), page 22, table 3-14: Tier 2 emission factor for source category 2.D.3.i, 2.G Other solvent and product use, Other, Use of Fireworks.

Pollutants Unit Default-EF
SO2 g/t product 3.020
CO g/t product 7.150
NOx g/t product 260
Cu g/t product 444
Pb g/t product 784
Zn g/t product 260

The emission factors for PM₁₀, PM2.5 and TSP are measured values from the VPI.

Pollutant PM₁₀ PM₁₀ PM 2.5 PM 2.5 STB STB
Sylvester-EF During the period-EF Sylvester-EF During the period-EF Sylvester-EF During the period-EF
[g/t] [g/t] [g/t] [g/t] [g/t] [g/t]
1990 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1991 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1992 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1993 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1994 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1995 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1996 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1997 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1998 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
1999 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
2000 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
2001 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
2002 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
2003 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
2004 52.002,56 62.799,96 41.463,05 49.644,24 52.002,56 62.799,96
2005 47.509,31 72.317,11 38.129,60 57.167,68 47.509,31 72.317,11
2006 45.793,40 71.986,67 36.930,61 56.906,46 45.793,40 71.986,67
2007 45.174,65 72.071,88 36.615,74 56.973,82 45.174,65 72.071,88
2008 45.955,36 71.471,31 37.390,41 56.499,06 45.955,36 71.471,31
2009 45.701,68 70.204,58 37.132,12 55.497,69 45.701,68 70.204,58
2010 44.826,79 69.253,15 36.536,80 54.745,57 44.826,79 69.253,15
2011 44.068,30 68.877,53 36.121,87 54.448,64 44.068,30 68.877,53
2012 45.566,16 69.993,91 37.527,36 55.331,16 45.566,16 69.993,91
2013 46.098,42 67.212,39 38.026,91 53.132,33 46.098,42 67.212,39
2014 46.621,17 67.680,72 38.595,22 53.502,55 46.621,17 67.680,72
2015 47.474,24 67.313,58 39.383,93 53.212,31 47.474,24 67.313,58
2016 47.523,35 66.094,38 39.539,55 52.248,52 47.523,35 66.094,38
2017 47.853,44 65.938,58 39.907,83 52.125,36 47.853,44 65.938,58
2018 48.270,00 63.519,57 39.713,09 50.213,10 48.270,00 63.519,57
2019 48.085,00 63.217,87 40.033,58 49.974,60 48.085,00 63.217,87

The EMEP Guidebook offers Default-EFs for the pollutants Ar, Hg, Ni and Cr. But the VPI has proofed that these emissions does not occur in Germany. And the VPI has further proofed that Pb emissions does not anymore occur since 2003. See the following explanations:

As and Hg: For As and Hg the members of the VPI have confirmed that Ar and Hg are not anymore used since 1980. Since 2003 the DIN EN 14035:2003 went in force, which did forbit these substances. The actual follow up norm DIN EN 15947-5 was published in February 2016 and describes the german implementation of the harmonized and in the official journal of the European union 2017, C 149/2 published norm EN 15947:2015.

Pb: As the DIN EN 14035:2003 entered into force as from 2003, which did forbid this substance, there are no Pb-emissions from fireworks from 2003 onwards. The actual follow up norm DIN EN 15947-5 was published in February 2016 and describes the german implementation of the harmonized and in the official journal of the European union 2017, C 149/2 published norm EN 15947:2015.

Cd: The members of the VPI were asked and did explain, that Cd was never used, because it has no pyrotechnical effect. Since 2013 Cd is on the candidates list of the substances of Very High Concern (SVHC), published according article 59, para. 10 of the REACH-ordinance.

Ni: The members of the VPI informed that Ni was never used, because it has no pyrotechnical effect. It is part of the harmonized assessment according the ordinance (EG) Nr. 1272/2008 (CLP). Belonging to this, it is assessed as cancerogen category 2.

Cr: According the information from the members of the VPI Cr is not anymore used since the beginning of the 1980. Since 2012 (REACH Annex XIV (Ordinance (EU) Nr. 125/2012) Cr was implemented in the REACH Annex XIV. So from that year a permission duty is necessary. So far, none of the fireworks producers has requested for a permission.

Recalculations

The activity data has changed as follows:

Table 1: Change of AD between Submission 2020 and Submission 2021

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Subm2020 AR t 17.956,90 21.740,70 37.115,80 34.781,10 39.578,70 66.271,80 69.009,60 59.560 25.604,70 43.244,30 48.355,30 24.149,60 36.461,80 36.351,70 46.347,10 38.148,13 43.487,27 44.704,70 42.228,13 41.839,47 42.651,70 38.637,53 42.856,67 37.846,70 45.164,10 45.656,30 45.208,30 44.110,70 46.461,70
Subm2021 AR Firework, Sylvester t 13.939 16.395,80 24.555,50 26.172,30 27.152,60 51.421,30 54.412,70 48.281,20 24.179,80 24.692,50 26.282,70 21.561,30 25.993,60 25.759,40 29.286,30 28.856,20 30.491,40 33.396,30 34.461,40 30.074,50 31.439,50 29.795 33.085,50 29.130,70 33.240,60 34.998,70 32.571,70 33.935,70 32.979,70
Subm2021 AR Firework, during the year t 4.130,10 3.493,40 5.902,70 6.138 6.798,60 7.447,20 7.880,40 6.992,50 5.220,20 11.482,80 10.905,70 4.741,20 6.085 6.256,30 8.545,20 7.505,50 10.755,40 8.235,10 8.088,30 7.520,70 8.006,60 7.499 8.137,30 7.247,10 8.465,40 8.831,50 9.487,20 8.544 9.088
Subm2021 Sum AR t 18.069,10 19.889,20 30.458,20 32.310,30 33.951,20 58.868,50 62.293,10 55.273,70 29.400,00 36.175,30 37.188,40 26.302,50 32.078,60 32.015,70 37.831,50 36.361,70 41.246,80 41.631,40 42.549,70 37.595,20 39.446,10 37.294,00 41.222,80 36.377,80 41.706,00 43.830,20 42.058,90 42.479,70 42.067,70
Difference t 112,20 -1.851,50 -6.657,60 -2.470,80 -5.627,50 -7.403,30 -6.716,50 -4.286,30 3.795,30 -7.069,00 -11.166,90 2.152,90 -4.383,20 -4.336,00 -8.515,60 -1.786,43 -2.240,47 -3.073,30 321,57 -4.244,27 -3.205,60 -1.343,53 -1.633,87 -1.468,90 -3.458,10 -1.826,10 -3.149,40 -1.631,00 -4.394,00

The emissions from As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Ni were deleted. The VPI proofed that these emissions does not occur. For Pb the emissions are from 2003 onwards changed to NA because the VPI proofed that the usage of Pb is forbidden since 2003 by a DIN Norm. The emissions of CO, Cu, NOx, SOₓ, Zn and Pb are changed because of changed AD. The emissions of PM10, PM2.5 and TSP are changed because of changed AD and new EFs from the VPI.

Table 2: Change of emissions between Submission 2020 and Submission 2021

Pollutant Source Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018
Subm2020 As t 0,02388268 0,08814149 0,06431255 5,07E-02 0,05672676 0,06072288 0,06012704 0,05866723 0,06179406
Subm2021 As Fireworks, New Years Eve t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subm2021 As Fireworks, during the year t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Difference As t -0,02388268 -0,08814149 -0,06431255 -0,05073702 -0,05672676 -0,06072288 -0,06012704 -0,05866723 -0,06179406
Subm2020 Cd t 0,02657621 0,09808226 0,07156584 5,65E-02 0,06312452 0,06757132 0,06690828 0,06528384 0,06876332
Subm2021 Cd Fireworks, New Years Eve t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subm2021 Cd Fireworks, during the year t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Difference Cd t -0,02657621 -0,09808226 -0,07156584 -0,05645924 -0,06312452 -0,06757132 -0,06690828 -0,06528384 -0,06876332
Subm2020 CO t 128,391835 473,84337 345,740395 272,759153 304,959655 326,442545 323,239345 315,391505 332,201155
Subm2021 CO Fireworks, New Years Eve t 99,66385 367,662295 187,921305 206,32183 224,792425 250,240705 232,887655 242,640255 235,804855
Subm2021 CO Fireworks, during the year t 29,530215 53,24748 77,975755 53,664325 57,24719 63,145225 67,83348 61,0896 64,9792
Difference CO t 0,80223 -52,933595 -79,843335 -12,7729983 -22,92004 -13,056615 -22,51821 -11,66165 -31,4171
Subm2020 Cr t 0,28012764 1,03384008 0,75434268 0,59511088 0,66536652 0,71223828 0,70524948 0,68812692 0,72480252
Subm2021 Cr Fireworks, New Years Eve t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subm2021 Cr Fireworks, during the year t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Difference Cr t -0,28012764 -1,03384008 -0,75434268 -0,59511088 -0,66536652 -0,71223828 -0,70524948 -0,68812692 -0,72480252
Subm2020 Cu t 7,9728636 29,4246792 21,4697532 16,9377712 18,9373548 20,2713972 20,0724852 19,5851508 20,6289948
Subm2021 Cu Fireworks, New Years Eve t 6,188916 22,8310572 11,6695188 12,8121528 13,959138 15,5394228 14,4618348 15,0674508 14,6429868
Subm2021 Cu Fireworks, during the year t 1,8337644 3,3065568 4,8421308 3,332442 3,5549304 3,921186 4,2123168 3,793536 4,035072
Difference Cu t 0,0498168 -3,2870652 -4,9581036 -0,7931764 -1,4232864 -0,8107884 -1,3983336 -0,724164 -1,950936
Subm2020 Hg t 0,00102354 0,00377749 0,00275625 0,00217444 0,00243115 0,00260241 0,00257687 0,00251431 0,00264832
Subm2021 Hg Fireworks, New Years Eve t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subm2021 Hg Fireworks, during the year t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Difference Hg t -0,00102354 -0,00377749 -0,00275625 -0,00217444 -0,00243115 -0,00260241 -0,00257687 -0,00251431 -0,00264832
Pollutant Source Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018
Subm2020 Ni t 0,538707 1,988154 1,450659 1,144444 1,279551 1,369689 1,356249 1,323321 1,393851
Subm2021 Ni Fireworks, New Years Eve t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subm2021 Ni Fireworks, during the year t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Difference Ni t -0,538707 -1,988154 -1,450659 -1,144444 -1,279551 -1,369689 -1,356249 -1,323321 -1,393851
Subm2020 NOx t 4,668794 17,230668 12,572378 9,91851467 11,089442 11,870638 11,754158 11,468782 12,080042
Subm2021 NOx Fireworks, New Years Eve t 3,62414 13,369538 6,833502 7,502612 8,17427 9,099662 8,468642 8,823282 8,574722
Subm2021 NOx Fireworks, during the year t 1,073826 1,936272 2,835482 1,95143 2,081716 2,29619 2,466672 2,22144 2,36288
Difference NOx t 0,029172 -1,924858 -2,903394 -0,46447267 -0,833456 -0,474786 -0,818844 -0,42406 -1,14244
Subm2020 Pb t 14,0782096 51,9570912 37,9105552 29,9081365 33,4389328 35,7945392 35,4433072 34,5827888 36,4259728
Subm2021 Pb Fireworks, New Years Eve t 10,928176 24,8087995 4,75514695 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subm2021 Pb Fireworks, during the year t 3,2379984 3,59298757 1,9730928 0 0 0 0 0 0
Difference Pb t 0,0879648 -23,5553041 -31,1823154 -29,9081365 -33,4389328 -35,7945392 -35,4433072 -34,5827888 -36,4259728
Subm2020 PM 10 t 6.621,88 4.831,66 3.811,76 4.261,76 4.561,98 4.517,21 4.407,54 4.642,45
Subm2021 PM 10 Fireworks, New Years Eve t 2.674,04 1.366,77 1.370,94 1.409,33 1.661,54 1.547,92 1.623,94 1.591,93
Subm2021 PM 10 Fireworks, during the year t 467,683873 684,87754 542,776071 554,482233 594,479838 627,050634 563,379267 577,265866
Difference PM 10 t -3480,1554 -2780,01648 -1898,04731 -2297,94362 -2305,96094 -2342,24645 -2220,22203 -2473,25708
Subm2020 PM 2.5 t 3.442,16 2.511,57 1.981,41 2.215,33 2.371,39 2.348,12 2.291,11 2.413,22
Subm2021 PM 2.5 Fireworks, New Years Eve t 2.132,08 1.089,76 1.100,28 1.148,70 1.378,39 1.287,87 1.354,30 1.309,73
Subm2021 PM 2.5 Fireworks, during the year t 369,710572 541,40517 429,071993 438,325876 469,944536 495,692201 445,359104 456,336653
Difference PM 2.5 t -940,362639 -880,408132 -452,066627 -628,304647 -523,057419 -564,556656 -491,450477 -647,158392
Subm2020 SO2 t 54,229838 200,140836 146,033006 115,207363 128,808134 137,882026 136,529066 133,214314 140,314334
Subm2021 SO2 Fireworks, New Years Eve t 42,09578 155,292326 79,373754 87,145724 94,94729 105,696074 98,366534 102,485814 99,598694
Subm2021 SO2 Fireworks, during the year t 12,472902 22,490544 32,935214 22,66661 24,179932 26,67113 28,651344 25,80288 27,44576
Difference SO2 t 0,338844 -22,357966 -33,724038 -5,39502867 -9,680912 -5,514822 -9,511188 -4,92562 -13,26988
Subm2020 TSP t 1.972,21 7.278,63 5.310,86 4.189,81 4.684,44 5.014,43 4.965,23 4.844,68 5.102,89
Subm2021 TSP Fireworks, New Years Eve t 724,863616 2.674,04 1.366,77 1.370,94 1.409,33 1.661,54 1.547,92 1.623,94 1.591,93
Subm2021 TSP Fireworks, during the year t 259,370121 467,683873 684,87754 542,776071 554,482233 594,479838 627,050634 563,379267 577,265866
Difference TSP t -987,97259 -4136,90893 -3259,2175 -2276,09531 -2720,62196 -2758,41487 -2790,2607 -2657,35906 -2933,69253
Pollutant Source Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018
Subm2020 Zn t 4,668794 17,230668 12,572378 9,91851467 11,089442 11,870638 11,754158 11,468782 12,080042
Subm2021 Zn Fireworks, New Years Eve t 3,62414 13,369538 6,833502 7,502612 8,17427 9,099662 8,468642 8,823282 8,574722
Subm2021 Zn Fireworks, during the year t 1,073826 1,936272 2,835482 1,95143 2,081716 2,29619 2,466672 2,22144 2,36288
Difference Zn t 0,029172 -1,924858 -2,903394 -0,46447267 -0,833456 -0,474786 -0,818844 -0,42406 -1,14244

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2018, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

The uncertainty for the AD is given as 10%.

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned.