2.C.1 - Iron & Steel Production

Short description

Source category NFR 2.C.1 - Iron & Steel Production comprises process-related emissions from oxygen steel and electric-steel production.

Category Code Method AD EF
2.C.1 T2 NS CS
Key Category SO₂ NOₓ NH₃ NMVOC CO BC Pb Hg Cd Diox PAH HCB TSP PM₁₀ PM₂ ₅
2.C.1 L/- - - - L/- - L/T L/T L/T L/T - - L/T L/T L/T

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T = key source by Trend L = key source by Level

Methods
D Default
RA Reference Approach
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
C CORINAIR
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2007, in the group specific chapters.
AD - Data Source for Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific data
AS Associations, business organisations
Q specific questionnaires, surveys
EF - Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
C Confidential
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific data


The last Siemens-Martin steel works (Stahlwerk Brandenburg) was shut down shortly after 1990; the last Thomas steel works (Maxhütte Sulzbach-Rosenberg) discontinued the production in 2002. Due to their minor relevance and the phasing out, the emissions from Siemens-Martin and Thomas steel production are jointly calculated with the emissions from oxygen steel production.
The other structural elements are sinter production, hot iron production, hot rolling, iron and steel foundries (including malleable casting). Energy-related emissions from steel production for the years 1990 - 1994 (for individual pollutants until 1999) are reported under 1.A.2.a.

In 2019 a total of 27.7 million t of raw steel was produced in six integrated steelworks. Electrical steel production amounted to another 11.9 million t.

 Illustration Blast Furnace

Method

Activity data

Activity data are surveyed plant specific and submitted by national statistics. After discontinuation of the special statistics for iron and steel production (FS. 4, R. 8.1), the information is collected by the German steel trade association Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl (WV Stahl) based on a formal agreement. In the iron and steel industry, only minor amounts of secondary fuels are used for pig iron production in individual blast furnaces. They are used as substitute reducing agents, instead of coke. To date, these materials have not yet been included in the national statistics and in the Energy Balance. For this reason, the data used was provided by the steel trade association (Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl).

As the activity rates for 2017 could not be provided by WV Stahl as a result of competition problems, aggregated values from emissions trading were used instead. The consistency of emissions trading data has been verified against comparative figures for previous years. The deviations are less than 1%, only in sintering production they are noticeably higher (maximum + 8%).

Emission factors

The emission factors used for emissions calculation are based on emission data from individual plants, either determined by the Umweltbundesamt (UBA) itself (emission factors for 1995 - 2001) or by a research project (emission factors for 2008).
As the EF for the years 1995 - 2001 as well as for 2008 are based on real stack emission data, it is not possible to distinguish between combustion and process emissions (they are emitted via the same stacks). Hence whereever plant-based EF were availaible, i.e. for most pollutants for the years 1995 and later, all emissions are reported under 2.C.1.

Please note that the reported emissions now also cover diffuse emissions from sources that were not covered in previous reporting periods, nor in the EMEP/EEA Guidebook. For many pollutants and sources, individual EFs for channelled as well as diffuse emissions have been determined. While there is sufficient knowledge and measurement data of channelled emissions, the emission data concerning diffuse sources is usually based on estimations, using parameters adapted to the local conditions of the individual emission source. Therefore, emission data for one source of diffuse emissions is hardly significant for the diffuse emissions from other plants. The emission factors given below were calculated as the weighted average of pollution loads reported for individual diffuse sources by the plant operators, in relation to their corresponding production amounts.

Table 1: Overview of applied emission factors applied for sinter production

pollutant Type of source EF 1990 EF 1995 EF 2000 EF 2005 EF 2010 EF 2016 unit Trend
Cd 0.098 0.052 0.017 g/t falling
CO 19.152 17.325 15.497 14.4 kg/t falling
Cr 0.077 0.044 0.02 g/t falling
HCB 0.03 mg/t constant
Hg 0.059 0.028 0.005 g/t falling
Ni 0.139 0.068 0.015 g/t falling
NMVOC 0.12 kg/t constant
NOx IE 0.558 0.46 0.401 kg/t falling
PAH 320.00 248.571 177.143 120 mg/t falling
Pb 5.299 3.242 1.7 g/t falling
PCB 3.0 2.285714 1.571429 1 mg/t falling
PCDD/F 6.0 4.575 3.149 1.724 0.796 0.578 µg/t falling
SO2 IE 1.08 0.837 0.691 kg/t falling
TSP channelled 0.65 0.465 0.234 0.096 kg/t falling
TSP diffuse 0.046 kg/t new EF
PM10 channelled 0.445 0.336 0.177 0.07 kg/t falling
PM10 diffuse 0.016 kg/t new EF
PM2.5 channelled 0.214 0.206 0.13 0.056 kg/t falling

Table 2: Overview of applied emission factors applied for pig iron production

pollutant Type of source EF 1995 EF 2000 EF 2005 EF 2010 EF 2016 unit Trend
B(a)P 0.05 mg/t constant
Cd channelled 0.004 g/t constant
Cd diffuse 0.000203 g/t constant
CO channelled 1.18 0.915 0.65 0.491 0.491 kg/t falling
CO diffuse 0.398 kg/t constant
Cr channelled 0.019 0.006 0.002 0.001 0.001 g/t falling
Cr diffuse 0.008 g/t constant
Hg channelled 0.002436 0.000192 0.000015 0.000003 0.000003 g/t falling
Hg diffuse 0.005 mg/t constant
Ni channelled 0.021 0.006 0.002 0.001 0.001 g/t falling
Ni diffuse 0.008 g/t constant
NMVOC 0.018525 kg/t constant
NOx channelled 0.051938 0.051938 0.051938 0.0517 0.0517 kg/t falling
NOx diffuse 0.001 g/t constant
Pb channelled 0.022 kg/t constant
Pb diffuse 0.011 g/t constant
PCDD/F 0.026 0.009 0.004 0.004 0.004 µg/t falling
SO2 channelled 0.242 g/t constant
SO2 diffuse 0.04 kg/t constant
TSP channelled 0.022 0.015 0.01 0.008 0.008 kg/t falling
TSP diffuse 0.016 g/t constant
PM10 channelled 0.013 0.009 0.006 0.006 0.006 kg/t falling
PM10 diffuse 0.007 kg/t constant
PM2.5 channelled 0.009 0.007 0.005 0.004 0.004 kg/t falling

Table 3: Overview of applied emission factors applied for oxygen steel production

pollutant Type of source EF 1995 EF 2000 EF 2005 EF 2010 EF 2016 unit Trend
Cd 0.053 0.038 0.024 0.016 0.016 g/t falling
CO 11.500 11.077 10.654 10.400 10.400 kg/t falling
Cr channelled 0.715 0.306 0.125 0.028 0.028 g/t falling
Cr diffuse 0.069 g/t new EF, constant
Ni channelled 0.090 0.060 0.030 0.006 0.006 g/t falling
Ni diffuse 0.004 g/t new EF, constant
NOx channelled 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.004 0.004 kg/t falling
NOx diffuse 0.0037 kg/t constant
PAH 0.100 mg/t constant
Pb channelled 2.941 1.883 0.824 0.189 0.189 g/t falling
Pb diffuse 0.278 g/t new EF, constant
PCB 2.670 1.740 1 1 1 mg/t falling
PCDD/F 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.069 0.069 µg/t falling
SO2 diffuse 0.001 kg/t constant
TSP channelled 0.155 0.145 0.145 0.024 0.024 kg/t falling
TSP diffuse 0.049 kg/t new EF, constant
PM10 channelled 0.099 0.093 0.093 0.020 0.020 kg/t falling
PM10 diffuse 0.019 kg/t new EF, constant
PM2.5 channelled 0.025 0.023 0.023 0.017 0.017 kg/t falling

Table 4: Overview of applied emission factors applied for electric steel production

pollutant Type of source EF 1995 EF 2000 EF 2005 EF 2010 EF 2016 unit Trend
B(a)P 2.531 1.661 0.792 0.271 0.271 mg/t falling
Cd 0.240 0.157 0.065 0.016 0.016 g/t falling
CO channelled 1.700 1.187 0.674 0.366 0.366 kg/t falling
CO diffuse 0.001 kg/t new EF, constant
Cr channelled 0.481 0.206 0.258 0.323 0.323 g/t fluctuating
Cr diffuse 0.851 g/t constant
Hg channelled 0.306 0.288 0.154 0.070 0.070 g/t falling
Ni channelled 0.483 0.207 0.145 0.124 0.124 g/t falling
Ni diffuse 0.284 g/t constant
NMVOC 0.035 0.024 0.012 0.006 0.006 kg/t falling
NOx channelled 0.122 0.12 0.106 0.098 0.098 kg/t falling
NOx diffuse 0.014 kg/t new EF, constant
PAH 45 22 3.793 3.790 3.793 mg/t falling
Pb channelled 4.075 1.747 0.720 0.170 0.170 g/t falling
Pb diffuse 0.056 g/t new EF, constant
PCB 5.68 3.360 1.500 1.500 1.500 mg/t falling
PCDD/F 0.466 0.295 0.158 0.158 0.158 µg/t falling
SO2 channelled 0.113 kg/t constant
SO2 diffuse 0.004 kg/t new EF, constant
TSP channelled 0.28 0.12 0.074 0.018 0.018 kg/t falling
TSP diffuse 0.043 0.043 kg/t new EF, constant
PM10 channelled 0.179 0.08 0.051 0.013 0.013 kg/t falling
PM10 diffuse 0.007 0.007 kg/t new EF, constant
PM2.5 channelled 0.045 0.04 0.038 0.011 0.011 kg/t falling

Table 5: Overview of applied emission factors applied for hot and cold rolling

pollutant Type of source EF 1995 EF 2000 EF 2005 EF 2010 EF 2016 unit Trend
CO 0.005 0.005 kg/t constant
NH3 0.700 g/t constant
NMVOC 0.003 kg/t constant
NOx 0.410 0.276 0.196 0.196 kg/t falling
SO2 0.059 0.050 0.044 0.044 kg/t falling
TSP channelled 0.020 0.020 kg/t new EF, constant
TSP diffuse 0.010 0.010 kg/t new EF, constant
PM10 channelled 0.304 0.304 g/t new EF, constant
PM10 diffuse 0.645 0.645 g/t new EF, constant
PM2.5 channelled 0.266 0.266 g/t new EF, constant

Table 6: Overview of applied emission factors applied for iron and steel casting

pollutant EF 2010 unit Trend
B(a)P 10 mg/t constant
NH3 0.027 kg/t falling
NMVOC 0.150 kg/t constant
NOx 0.242 kg/t falling
PAH 0.100 g/t constant
PCDD/F 0.190 µg/t constant
SO2 0.256 kg/t falling
TSP 0.200 kg/t constant
PM10 0.137 kg/t constant
PM2.5 0.0836 kg/t constant

Uncertainties

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Trends in emissions correspond to trends of emission factors in the table above, in many cases due to regulatory measures. Since 2010, the main driver for the emission trends in most cases is the activity data.

Recalculations

Replacing data of the preliminary energy balance with data of the final energy balance leads to restatements for the year 2017.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2018, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

HCB emissions have not been included in iron production till German Informative Inventory Report 2021 due to lack of emission data (notation key NE). And the standard emission factor is not seen as appropriate. In order to overcome this data gap, information search will be done within the scope of a Project for actualizing several emission factors. The project should start in 2021 and is designed to run three years. As long as there is no country specific emission factor for HCB the standard emission factor is used. In implementing the EMEP/EEA Guidebook standard emission factor Germany is following recommendations provided by the Expert Review Team for the NECD-Review in 2020.