2.B.10.a - Other Chemicals

Short description

In sub-category 2.B.10.a - Other Chemicals, emissions from the production of organic chemicals, titanium dioxide, sulphuric acid, carbon black, fertilizers and from the chlor-alkali industry are reported. Relevant pollutants are NMVOC, CO, PCDD/F, SOx, NH3, PM2.5, PM10, TSP and Hg.

Table 1: Overview of emission sources covered

Emission sources Pollutants Method AD EF Key Category
Large Volume Organic chemicals NMVOC (PCDD/F only for Ethylene Dichloride) T2 NS CS
Carbon Black CO, SO2, TSP, PM10, PM2.5 T2 NS D, CS
Fertilizers TSP, PM10, PM2.5, NH3 T2 - D, CS
Sulphuric acid SO2 T2 NS CS L
Chlor-alkali industry Hg T3 PS -

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T = key source by Trend L = key source by Level

Methods
D Default
RA Reference Approach
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
C CORINAIR
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2007, in the group specific chapters.
AD - Data Source for Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific data
AS Associations, business organisations
Q specific questionnaires, surveys
EF - Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
C Confidential
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific data

Method

Large Volume Organic chemicals

The annual production volumes for all large volume organic chemicals are extracted from national production statistics by the Federal Statistical Office [Lit. 1].

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These chemicals comprise:

  • Acrylonitrile
  • Ethylene
  • Ethylbenzene
  • Ethylene Dichloride
  • Ethylene Oxide
  • Formaldehyde (Methanal)
  • Methanol
  • Phthalic Anhydride
  • Propene
  • Styrene
  • Vinyl Chloride
  • Polyethylene (LD/HD)
  • Polypropylene
  • Polystyrene
  • Polyvinyl Chloride
  • Styrene Copolymeres

The emission factors for the production of organic chemicals as shown in table 2 and 3 are derived from best reference documents polymers and LVOC mostly for the early years. For later years, plant-specific data on an aggregated level were used.

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Table 2: national NMVOC emission factors for producing organic chemicals, in kg/t

Product Acrylonitrile Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Oxide Formaldehyde (Methanal) Methanol Phthalic Anhydride Propene Styrene Vinyl Chloride
from 1990-1994 5 0.6 5 C 5 5 0.04 5 2.5 0.02 0.2
1995 0.07 0.02 0.4 C 0.06 0.02 0.04 0.2 0.2 0.02 0.2
1996 0.05 0.015 0.3 C 0.045 0.015 0.04 0.15 0.15 0.02 0.15
1997 0.05 0.015 0.3 C 0.045 0.015 0.04 0.15 0.15 0.02 0.15
1998 0.04 0.012 0.25 C 0.04 0.012 0.04 0.12 0.12 0.02 0.12
1999 0.04 0.012 0.25 C 0.04 0.012 0.04 0.12 0.12 0.02 0.12
from 2000 0.035 0.01 0.2 C 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.1 0.1 0.02 0.1

Table 3: national NMVOC emission factors for producing polymers, in kg/t

products Polyethylene (PE) Polypropylen (PP) Polystyrene (PS) Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Styrene Copolymeres
Low density (LD) High density (HD)
from 1990 to 1994 8 6 8 1 0.25 5
1995 2.2 1 1 0.6 0.25 0.6
1996 1.6 0.75 0.75 0.4 0.25 0.5
1997 1.6 0.75 0.75 0.4 0.25 0.5
1998 1.3 0.6 0.6 0.32 0.25 0.4
1999 1.3 0.6 0.6 0.32 0.25 0.4
from 2000 1.1 0.5 0.5 0.27 0.14 0.3

Carbon Black

The figures for carbon black production in the new German Länder in 1990 were taken from the Statistical Yearbook (Statistisches Jahrbuch) for the Federal Republic of Germany; the figures for 1991 and 1992 were estimated, due to confidentiality requirements. The other data for carbon-black production as of 1990 were obtained from national production statistics [Lit. 1].
From 2005 onwards, Germany uses activity data calculated from the CO2 emissions of the Emission Trading System (ETS), delivered from the German emission trading authority (DEHSt), and the default CO2 emission factor from the IPCC Guidelines 2006 for carbon black production. A comparison of the statistical data and the emission trading data leads to the result, that the statistical data is most probably overestimated.

Table 4: Emission factors of carbon black in Germany, in kg/t

Pollutant CO SO2 TSP PM10 PM2.5
1990 4.80 19.16 0.28
1991 4.60 19.01 0.28
1992 4.40 18.50 0.27
1993 4.20 18.00 0.26
1994 4.00 17.50 0.25
1995 3.75 17.00 0.25 0.23 0.12
1996 3.50 16.00 0.25 0.23 0.12
1997 3.25 15.00 0.25 0.23 0.12
1998 3.00 14.00 0.25 0.23 0.12
1999 2.90 13.40 0.25 0.23 0.12
2000 2.80 12.80 0.25 0.23 0.12
2001 2.70 12.54 0.25 0.23 0.12
2002 2.65 12.28 0.25 0.23 0.12
2003 2.60 12.00 0.25 0.23 0.12
2004 2.55 11.70 0.25 0.23 0.12
2005 2.50 11.50 0.25 0.23 0.12
2006 2.50 11.20 0.24 0.22 0.12
2007 2.50 10.90 0.23 0.21 0.11
2008 2.50 10.60 0.22 0.20 0.11
2009 2.50 10.30 0.21 0.19 0.10
from 2010 2.50 10.00 0.20 0.18 0.10

Fertilizers

The Activity data are from the statistical office of Germany. For Fertilizers Number 2415 30 of statistical data. And for nitrogenous fertilizers the numbers 2413 30, 2415 40 and 2415 80 of statistical data.

The emission factors are country specific (Jörß et al. 2006) [Lit. 2] and are presented in the following table.

Table 5: Emission factors of fertilizers in Germany, in kg/t

Product Fertilizers Nitrogenous Fertilizers
Pollutant PM10 PM2.5 TSP NH3 TSP
from 1990 to 1994 2 5 1
1995 0.12 0.08 0.17 5 1
1996 0.12 0.08 0.17 5 1
1997 0.12 0.08 0.17 5 1
1998 0.12 0.08 0.17 5 1
1999 0.12 0.08 0.17 5 1
from 2000 0.12 0.08 0.17 5 1

Sulphuric acid

The activity data for sulphuric acid production are from the statistical office of Germany.

For the SOx EF from sulphuric acid production there was made a survey in the year 2019. The producers were directly asked by the association. Based on the data from the producers new EFs for the years 2017 and 2018 were developed. All emissions were measured by the producers or respectively are limit values specified in the permit decision for the installation. The EF is weighted by the amount of H2SO4 produced. Big producers have more influence on the EF than small producers. The EF is smaller than the Default-EF. The reason for this is due to significant process optimizations and technology improvements since 1990.

Chlor-alkali industry

For the mercury losses from the Chlor-alkali industry Germany uses the yearly published data from OSPAR on the plant specific production capacity for the AD and the plant specific emissions from the chlor-alkali industry. Because of the BAT conclusion for the Chlor-alkali industry the production has stopped in 2017. But the emissions of Hg are still continuing, because two plants are producing alcoholates and dithionite and are not regulated by the BAT conclusions for Chlor-alkali production. At both places also Chlor-alkali was produced. The Hg-emissions from the production of dithionite and alcoholates were so far reported together with the Hg-emissions from Chlor-alkali production. The OSPAR convention does not request to report the Hg-emissions from dithionite- and alcoholate-production, so CEFIC does not anymore report these emissions to OSPAR. Germany plans to get a treaty with the two plants to get the Hg-emissions in future directly from these plants. And Germany plans to report these emissions in a new subcategory.

Recalculations

For SO2 emissions from titan dioxide production and sulphuric acid production and for Hg emissions from chlor-alkali industry the emissions of the two last years are always actualized. Because the emissions of the last year are always a prediction as these emissions are still not published.

For specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2018, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

For the mercury losses from the Chlor-alkali industry because of the BAT conclusion for the Chlor-alkali industry the production has stopped in 2017. But the emissions of Hg are still continuing, because two plants are producing alcoholates and dithionite and were so far reported by CEFIC to OSPAR based on BAT regulation for Chlor-alkali production. But the OSPAR convention does not request to report the Hg-emissions from dithionite- and alcoholate-production, so CEFIC does not anymore report these emissions to OSPAR. Germany plans to get a treaty with the two plants to get the Hg-emissions in future directly from these plants. And Germany plans to report these emissions in a new subcategory.

Bibliography

Lit. 1: DESTATIS, Fachserie 4, Reihe 3.1, Produzierendes Gewerbe, Produktion im Produzierenden Gewerbe (“manufacturing industry; production in the manufacturing industry”)
Lit. 2: Umweltbundesamt, W: Jörß, V. Handke, Emissionen und Maßnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000-2020, 31.12.2006, Annex A, chapter A.2.4.8