2.L(a) - Handling of Bulk Products

Short description

Under category 2.L(a) - Handling of Bulk Products dust emissions from bulk material handling (loading and unloading) including agricultural bulk materials offsite the fields are reported. Emissions from quarrying and mining of minerals and from point source emissions are excluded.

Methodology

For 1990 to 1996, only simplified estimates without a differentiation of handled materials and products exist. For all following years, emissions are calculated using a tier1 method taking into account detailed data on handled materials and products.

Activity data

Official statistics are of limited use in determining handling of bulk products. There are only transport statistics available providing the amounts of several transported materials.

During a research project carried out by (Müller-BBM) 1), activity data was derived from primary statistical data from the Federal Statistical Office for Germany (Satistisches Bundesamt, Destatis) and the Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, KBA). Here, data on goods transported by railways and ships is gathered by Destatis whereas data for road transport is collected by the KBA.

Here, for all years until 2009, the collection of data for transported goods followed the official NST/R (1968) nomenclature and regulation (Eurostat, 2015a) 2).

As of 2010, statistical data following the newly implemented NST-2007 3), 4) nomenclature and regulation from Destatis and KBA is applied instead.

Table 1: Overview of primary activity data sources over time

= 1990-1996 simplified estimates without differentiation of handled materials
= 1997-2009 statistical data following NST/R nomenclature
= as of 2010 statistical data following NST-2007 nomenclature

Here, NST/R allowed the distribution of a broad variety of goods and materials (e.g. barley, corn, oats, rice, rye, and wheat), whereas NST-2007 provides only a very condensed list of classes of goods (e.g. 'crops').

Due to these methodological breaks, activity data and emissions show inconsistencies (especially on the level of specific goods and materials) that cannot be eliminated at the moment. Nonetheless, on a aggregate level, these breaks are balanced out more or less automatically as the total amount of transported dry materials does not chnage too much with changing statistical approaches.

For estimating the amount of moved bulk materials as well as emissions from the loading and unloading of bulk materials, these primary activity data (PAD, including the amounts of imported and exported goods as well as goods transported within Germany) have to be calculated from the amounts of transported goods:

PADmaterial i = PADimport + PADexport + 2 * PADdomestic handling

with

  1. PADimport = amount of imported good or material,
  2. PADexport = amount of exported good or material and
  3. PADdomestic handling = amount of good or material transported only within Germany

As the basic statistics provide only total amounts of imported, exported and domestically transported dry goods without any distinction into bulk and packed goods, the shares of bulk goods had to be estimated via expert judgement during the workshop mentioned above.

During this workshop, experts, for comparable kinds of dry bulk material, discussed specific shares displaying which part of the total amount of dry material i loaded and/or unloaded within Germany might be transported as bulk material thus causing PM emissions.

So the activity data finally used for estimating specific particulate matter emissions for every bulk material is calculated as a specific share s of the amount of this material i loaded and/or unloaded within Germany:

ADbulk material i = PADbulk material i * s bulk share

Table 2: Amounts of dry, dusty bulk goods handled in Germany 2010-2019, in tonnes

transport mode 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
other herbal products inland vessel 5.523.633 39.189.603 38.498.874 34.508.319 30.305.094 30.305.094
railways 1.242.916 470.000 547.545 532.253 445.547 445.547
heavy-duty vehicle 20.847.400 34.166.200 22.918.493,25 24.118.587,36 35.511.099,79 35.511.099,79
sea-going vessel 4.052.384 6.376.068 7.164.149 6.953.293 6.614.999 6.614.999
raw mineral chemicals inland vessel 6.794.922 2.366.579 2.573.770 2.696.029 11.798.872 11.798.872
railways 9.827.059 9.273.000 9.627.577 9.885.631 10.634.917 10.634.917
heavy-duty vehicle 78.928.400 82.363.000 10.043.512,6 11.351.314,18 63.713.624,39 63.713.624,39
sea-going vessel 5.550.621 7.905.516 7.888.208 8.131.408 7.386.700 7.386.700
raw organic chemicals inland vessel 6.299.350 57.126 114.803 175.726 6.667.823,3 6.667.823,3
railways 16.287.803 21.094.000 18.661.643 18.339.593 0 0
heavy-duty vehicle 11.345.600 4.570.800 0 828.915,62 12.601.907,86 12.601.907,86
sea-going vessel 3.638.264 2.478.579 2.341.016 2.413.459 2.463.615 2.463.615
iron ore inland vessel 25.728.177 25.203.179 25.755.504 25.193.580 22.796.286,2 22.796.286,2
railways 38.565.334 37.708.000 37.434.377 37.586.847 38.252.864 38.252.864
heavy-duty vehicle 203.800 NE 1.764.223,28 534.846,2 1.680.884,75 1.680.884,75
sea-going vessel 13.922.885 13.967.430 13.365.447 14.810.135 14.761.129 14.761.129
crops inland vessel 9.816.233 11.243.918 10.046.500 9.546.963 7.715.976,9 7.715.976,9
railways 2.982.548 4.583.000 3.545.040 3.759.205 2.985.786 2.985.786
heavy-duty vehicle 65.464.800 70.614.200 58.304.412,81 61.639.153,5 58.957.569,61 58.957.569,61
sea-going vessel 9.319.143 12.142.981 10.735.948 8.851.781 7.672.262 7.672.262
potatoes inland vessel 1.383 0 0 1.056 0 0
railways 17.135 0 0 4.581.528 4.896.748 4.896.748
heavy-duty vehicle 10.627.000 9.956.800 4.683.479,8 5.039.904,39 9.621.800,34 9.621.800,34
sea-going vessel 29.296.456 21.170.067 20.406.870 22.490.149 20.701.636 20.701.636
coal products inland vessel 2.409.311 1.361.655 2.003.004 2.129.778 1.560.991,4 1.560.991,4
railways 22.499.503 6.721.000 6.610.955 6.456.917 8.421.754 8.421.754
heavy-duty vehicle 11.801.600 15.401.600 7.065.313,67 8.549.595,42 13.182.781,81 13.182.781,81
sea-going vessel 802.164 48.778 43.760 135.197 25.450 25.450
proiducts from grinding and shelling mills inland vessel 1.782.712 4.133.053 5.180.094 5.368.877 5.275.004,5 5.275.004,5
railways 2.852 0 465.039 381.098 349.419 349.419
heavy-duty vehicle 97.539.400 99.568.200 75.685.582,42 69.634.714,07 99.763.916,17 99.763.916,17
sea-going vessel 3.104.125 3.525.359 3.586.612 3.747.650 3.788.108 3.788.108
mineral fertilisers inland vessel 760.174 305.202 281.603 255.398 197.705 197.705
railways 4.122.535 3.424.000 3.619.997 3.581.858 3.224.654 3.224.654
heavy-duty vehicle 7.923.200 4.322.000 1.338.907,89 1.006.750,39 1.814.963,65 1.814.963,65
sea-going vessel 117.224 409.515 256.924 323.622 311.822 311.822
natural sands, gravel and stones inland vessel 40.518.020 31.927.501 33.178.046 36.072.381 35.475.138,6 35.475.138,6
railways 56.517.180 43.958.000 43.837.499 39.960.787 41.345.431 41.345.431
heavy-duty vehicle 1.655.747.400 1.853.177.400 1.669.958.848,9 1.672.131.248,33 1.838.142.737,04 1.838.142.737,04
sea-going vessel 8.739.096 9.739.769 10.353.589 13.515.063 12.463.686 12.463.686
non-iron ores inland vessel 1.512.246 2.964.925 2.827.648 3.199.797 3.043.061,9 3.043.061,9
railways 29.742 8.000 6.642 16.877 61.486 61.486
heavy-duty vehicle 705.600 NE 0 827.676,19 512.050,57 512.050,57
sea-going vessel 2.687.815 2.850.350 3.870.273 4.368.429 4.621.799 4.621.799
raw coals inland vessel 36.652.759 0 0 0 19.571 19.571
railways 58.433.815 67.749.000 61.034.978 51.142.196 48.277.288 48.277.288
heavy-duty vehicle 10.561.400 13.275.800 11.858.051,12 16.057.484,06 12.593.015,33 12.593.015,33
sea-going vessel 13.299.295 16.476.145 14.401.269 15.919.606 16.187.881 16.187.881
secondary raw materials inland vessel 15.691.876 11.521.886 11.212.165 12.089.358 15.101.718,2 15.101.718,2
railways 25.614.264 22.113.000 21.261.312 22.147.649 20.565.387 20.565.387
heavy-duty vehicle 422.570.000 490.299.000 161.493.436,36 171.462.234,65 502.448.809,36 502.448.809,36
sea-going vessel 5.047.097 5.810.444 5.057.435 4.173.386 3.427.249 3.427.249
rock & saline salt inland vessel 2.769.356 3.939.437 3.651.498 4.115.651 3.977.617,5 3.977.617,5
railways 3.067.187 2.575.000 2.362.886 2.603.115 3.017.352 3.017.352
heavy-duty vehicle 21.579.000 7.887.600 7.238.776,07 10.591.976,8 11.820.822,05 11.820.822,05
sea-going vessel 567.059 919.251 888.593 812.124 1.116.411 1.116.411
nitrogen fertilisers inland vessel 5.737.386 5.104.076 4.930.755 4.742.988 4.466.441,8 4.466.441,8
railways 15.708.472 14.091.000 13.614.102 14.066.445 12.318.493 12.318.493
heavy-duty vehicle 37.454.600 71.366.600 28.434.988,59 30.619.530,39 68.151.043,89 68.151.043,89
sea-going vessel 5.309.443 6.509.499 7.011.855 7.392.865 7.239.705 7.239.705
white cement, lime, cement inland vessel 3.273.975 2.479.720 2.532.347 2.776.593 2.978.725,6 2.978.725,6
railways 17.849.146 21.867.000 19.270.679 18.928.775 18.679.111 18.679.111
heavy-duty vehicle 69.407.200 86.441.400 76.251.684,33 77.289.168,89 99.899.784,63 99.899.784,63
sea-going vessel 1.544.488 2.757.516 2.470.814 2.552.567 2.172.344 2.172.344
sugar beet inland vessel 0 6.366.439 6.426.328 6.396.070 5.912.658,8 5.912.658,8
railways 123.598 24.000 64.094 37.555 0 0
heavy-duty vehicle 26.946.200 36.601.000 22.159.059,85 32.853.553,74 31.023.481,64 31.023.481,64
sea-going vessel 17 2.872 3.125 9.676 3.277 3.277

sources: annual data deliveries DESTATIS & KBA (for heavy-duty vehicles) to the inventory compiler

Emission factors

Emission factors are based on the methodology according VDI guidelines 3790. The values used here originate from a research project by (Müller-BBM, 2011) 5) taking into account information of an expert panel of industry and administration. For details see the [*https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/konsistenzpruefung-verbesserungspotenzial project report] (German version only).

Within the study, PM emission factors are estimated for each material or good that might be transported as dry and unpacked bulk. These very specific EF are than assigned to the classes of materials/goods available from the different different statistics (NST/R, NST-2007) to form implied Ef for these class of bulk material.

As NST/R provided a wide variaty of goods and materials, whereas NST-2007 provides only a very condensed list of classes of goods, the very specific EF derived during the study and the joint expert workshop have been aggregated in order to match the classes of goods following NST-2007.

Table 2: specific EF for PM emissions from NST/R crop products, in [kg/t], as used for 2009 estimates

TSP PM10 PM2.5
for barley
inland ship 0.038 0.019 0.004
railway 0.038 0.019 0.004
maritime ship 0.038 0.019 0.0038
heavy-duty vehicle 0.038 0.019 0.004
for oats
inland ship 0.018 0.009 0.002
railway 0.018 0.009 0.002
maritime ship 0.018 0.009 0.00179
heavy-duty vehicle 0.018 0.009 0.002
for corn
inland ship 0.029 0.014 0.003
railway 0.029 0.014 0.003
maritime ship 0.029 0.014 0.00287
heavy-duty vehicle 0.029 0.014 0.003
for rice
inland ship 0.015 0.008 0.002
railway 0.015 0.008 0.002
maritime ship 0.015 0.008 0.00151
heavy-duty vehicle 0.015 0.008 0.002
for rye
inland ship 0.038 0.019 0.004
railway 0.038 0.019 0.004
maritime ship 0.038 0.019 0.0038
heavy-duty vehicle 0.038 0.019 0.004
for wheat
inland ship 0.038 0.019 0.004
railway 0.038 0.019 0.004
maritime ship 0.038 0.019 0.0038
heavy-duty vehicle 0.038 0.019 0.004

Here, in order to match the new NST-2007 classes for goods and materials, the very specific emission factors used in fomer submissions were converted to aggregated implied emission factors.

Table 3: IEFs used for emission estimates as of 2010, in [kg/t]

Heavy-duty vehicles Railways Inland vessels Sea vessels
TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5 TSP PM10 PM2.5
Other herbal products 0.032000 0.016000 0.003200 0.024000 0.012000 0.002400 0.022000 0.011000 0.002200 0.028000 0.014000 0.002800
Chemische Grundstoffe. mineralisch 0.041000 0.020500 0.004100 0.031000 0.015500 0.003100 0.029000 0.014500 0.002900 0.036000 0.018000 0.003600
Raw organic chemicals 0.024000 0.012000 0.002400 0.018000 0.009000 0.001800 0.017000 0.008500 0.001700 0.021000 0.010500 0.002100
Iron ore 0.057000 0.028500 0.005700 0.042000 0.021000 0.004200 0.040000 0.020000 0.004000 0.050000 0.025000 0.005000
Crops 0.045000 0.022500 0.004500 0.034000 0.017000 0.003400 0.031000 0.015500 0.003100 0.039000 0.019500 0.003900
Potatoes 0.007000 0.003500 0.000700 0.005000 0.002500 0.000500 0.005000 0.002500 0.000500 0.006000 0.003000 0.000600
Coal products 0.019000 0.009500 0.001900 0.014000 0.007000 0.001400 0.013000 0.006500 0.001300 0.017000 0.008500 0.001700
Products from grinding and shelling mills 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300
Mineral fertilisers 0.024000 0.012000 0.002400 0.018000 0.009000 0.001800 0.017000 0.008500 0.001700 0.021000 0.010500 0.002100
Natural sands. gravel. and stones 0.027000 0.013500 0.002700 0.020000 0.010000 0.002000 0.019000 0.009500 0.001900 0.023000 0.011500 0.002300
Non-iron ores 0.066000 0.033000 0.006600 0.049000 0.024500 0.004900 0.046000 0.023000 0.004600 0.058000 0.029000 0.005800
Raw coals 0.016000 0.008000 0.001600 0.016000 0.008000 0.001600 0.020000 0.010000 0.002000 0.028000 0.014000 0.002800
Secondary raw materials 0.027000 0.013500 0.002700 0.020000 0.010000 0.002000 0.019000 0.009500 0.001900 0.023000 0.011500 0.002300
Rock & saline salt 0.068000 0.034000 0.006800 0.051000 0.025500 0.005100 0.047000 0.023500 0.004700 0.059000 0.029500 0.005900
Nitrogen fertilisers 0.024000 0.012000 0.002400 0.018000 0.009000 0.001800 0.017000 0.008500 0.001700 0.021000 0.010500 0.002100
White cement. lime. cement 0.005000 0.002500 0.000500 0.004000 0.002000 0.000400 0.003000 0.001500 0.000300 0.004000 0.002000 0.000400
Sugar beet 0.000240 0.000120 0.000024 0.000180 0.000090 0.000018 0.000170 0.000085 0.000017 0.000210 0.000105 0.000021

Ratio TSP : PM10 : PM2.5

The shares of PM10 and PM2.5 of the entire amounts of emitted TSP have been set to fixed values used for the entire time series.

Assumptions:

  1. TSP = 100%,
  2. 50% of TSP are =< 10 µm. Therefore, the EF(PM10) are assumed as 1/2 of the corresponding EF(TSP), and
  3. 10% of TSP are =< 2.5 µm. Therefore, the EF(PM2.5) are assumed as 1/10 of the corresponding EF(TSP).

The ratios of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were also discussed in the research project mentioned above, but without generating any new data. Nonetheless, the ratios might be to low at the moment and will be checked furthermore.

Recalculations

With both activity data and emission factors remaining unrevised, no recalculations have been carried out.

Planned improvements

Although no specific improvement is planned, additional effort will be necessary to further minimise the inconsistencies in the activity data time series resulting from the different approaches applied.


1) MÜLLERBBM2011
2) Eurostat, 2015a: Standard Goods Classification for Transport Statistics/Revised (1967) NST/R - URL: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/nomenclatures/index.cfm?TargetUrl=LST_NOM_DTL&StrNom=NSTR_1967&StrLanguageCode=EN&IntPcKey=&StrLayoutCode=HIERARCHIC
4) Destatis, 2013: Statistisches Bundesamt, Verkehr, NST-2007: Einheitliches Güterverzeichnis für die Verkehrsstatistik – 2007 - URL: https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Branchen-Unternehmen/Transport-Verkehr/Gueterverkehr/Tabellen/nsz-2007.html
5) MÜLLERBBM2011