Appendix 2.4 - POP emissions from mobile combustion sources

Road Transport

For PAH exhaust-emissions, default emission factors from the July 2017 version of (EMEP/EEA, 2016) 1) have been applied. Regarding PCDD/F, a tier1 EF from (Rentz et al., 2008) 2) is used instead.

Table 1: Tier1 default emisison factors applied to road vehicles

= = B[a]P = B[b]F = B[k]F = I[…]P = PAHs 1-4 = PCDD/F
= = [mg/TJ] = [µg/km]
~ Diesel oil > 368 > 386 > 203 > 368 > 1,324 >
~ Biodiesel1 > 368 > 386 > 203 > 368 > 1,324 >
~ Gasoline fuels > 96 > 140 > 69 > 158 > 464 >
~ CNG = NE = NE = NE = NE = NE =
~ LPG > 4.35 > 0.00 > 4.35 > 4.35 > 13.2 >
~ Biogas = NE = NE = NE = NE = NE =
~ all fuels > 0.0000056
1

Here, the tier1 values for PAH exhaust emissions have been derived from the following tier1 default values provided in the July 2017 version of the 2016 EMEP/EEA Guidebook:

+ Non-road Mobile Machinery in 1.A.2.g vii, 1.A.4.a.ii,1.A.4.b.i, 1.A.4.c.ii and 1.A.5.b i

Table 3: Tier1 default emisison factors applied to NRMM

= = B[a]P = B[b]F = B[k]F = I[…]P = PAH 1-4 = PCDD/F
= = [mg/TJ] = [µg/TJ]
~ Diesel oil > 698 > 1.164 > 801 > 184 > 2,847 > 1.623
~ Biodiesel1 > 806 > 1.343 > 924 > 212 > 3,284 > 1.87
~ Gasoline fuels - 4-stroke > 919 > 919 > 90 > 204 > 2,131 > 2.763
~ Gasoline fuels - 2-stroke2 > 919 > 919 > 90 > 204 > 2,131 > 57.53
~ LPG (1.A.4.a ii only) > 4.35 > 0.00 > 4.35 > 4.35 > 13.04 = NE
1
2
3

+ Railways

Table 3: Tier1 default emisison factors applied to railway vehicles

= = B[a]P = B[b]F = B[k]F = I[…]p = PAH 1-43 = PCDD/F
= = [mg/TJ] = [µg/TJ]
~ Diesel oil > 6982 > 1,1642 > 8011 > 1841 > 2,8473 > 2.09
~ Biodiesel > 806 > 1,343 > 924 > 212 > 3,284 > 2.41
~ Lignite Briquettes > 34,500 = NE = NE = NE > 90,000 > 29.80
~ Raw Lignite = NE = NE
~ Hard Coal = NE = NE
~ Hard Coal Coke = NE = NE
1
2
3

As the EMEP/EEA GB 2016 does not provide a tier1 value for PCDD/F, the EF applied here has been derived from a study carried out by Rentz et al. (2008) 3) for the German Federal Environment Agency. Furthermore, both HCB and PCBs emissions are stated as not applicable in 4), chapter 1.A.3.c Railways, Table 3-1 Tier 1 emission factors for railways.

gallery size="medium" : GB2016_EF_NE+NA_1.A.3.c.png gallery

+ Inland Vessels and Ships in 1.A.3.d ii

Table 4: Tier1 default emission factors applied to inland ships and vessels

= = B[a]P = B[b]F = B[k]F = I[…]p = PAH 1-42 = HCB = PCBs = PCDD/F
= = [mg/TJ] = [µg/TJ]
~ Diesel oil > 6984 > 1,1644 > 8015 > 1845 > 2,847 > 1.863 > 0.883 > 93.07
~ Biodiesel1 > 806 > 1,343 > 924 > 212 > 3,284 > 1.02 > 2.15 > 107
1
2
3
4
5

+ Maritime Vessels and Ships in 1.A.3.d i, 1.A.3.d ii, 1.A.4.c iii and 1.A.5.b iii

The following table provides the tier1 EF applied for POPs from ships and vessels in both civil and military operation in NFR categories 1.A.3.d i -International Maritime Navigation, 1.A.3.d ii - National Navigation (Shipping), 1.A.4.c iii -Fisheryand 1.A.5.b iii - Other: Military Navigation.

Table 4: Tier1 default emission factors applied to maritime ships and vessels

= = B[a]P = B[b]F = B[k]F = I[…]p = PAH 1-42 = HCB = PCBs = PCDD/F
= = [mg/TJ] = [µg/TJ]
~ Diesel oil > 6984 > 1,1644 > 8015 > 1845 > 2,847 > 1.863 > 0.883 > 93.07
~ Biodiesel1 > 806 > 1,343 > 924 > 212 > 3,284 > 2.15 > 1.02 > 107
~ Heavy Fuel oil6 > 741 > 1,235 > 849 > 195 > 3,020 > 3.46 > 14.1 > 98.7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

gallery size="medium" : GB2016_EF_NE+NA_Navigation_HFO.PNG : GB2016_EF_NE+NA_Navigation_MDO.PNG gallery

+ Aircraft in 1.A.3.a and 1.A.5.b ii

The EMEP/EEA GB 2016 (July 2017) does not provide specific defaults for POP emissions from the combustion of jet kerosene and aviation gasoline, stating that for for aviation gasoline these emissions are not estimated (NE):

gallery size="medium" : GB2016(July2017)_EF_NA+NE_Avgas.PNG gallery

Therefore, the inventory compiler decided to apply the tier1 EF for PAHs from gasoline fuel used in non-road mobile machinery here, too. Furthermore, both HCB and PCBs emissions are stated as not applicable in 5), chapter 1.A.3.a, 1.A.5.b Aviation, Table 3.3 Tier 1 emission factors for NFR 1.A.3.a.ii.(i): Civil aviation (domestic, LTO).

As the Party assumes that POP emissions from the combustion of jet kerosene are unlikely to occur, these emission are reported as not applicable (NA).

Table 5: Tier1 default emisison factors applied to aircraft, in [mg/TJ]

= B[a]P = B[b]F = B[k]F = I[…]p = PAH 1-4 = PCDD/F
~ Kerosene = NA = NA = NA = NA = NA = NA
~ Aviation gasoline > 126 > 182 > 90 > 205 > 602 = NE

bibliography : 1 : EMEP/EEA (2016): EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016, URL: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2016; Copenhagen, July 2017. : 2 : Rentz et al., 2008: Nationaler Durchführungsplan unter dem Stockholmer Abkommen zu persistenten organischen Schadstoffen (POPs), im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes, FKZ 205 67 444, UBA Texte | 01/2008, January 2008 - URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/publikationen/nationaler-durchfuehrungsplan-unter-stockholmer bibliography


1) (bibcite 1)
2) (bibcite 2)
3) (bibcite 2)
4) (bibcite 2)
5) (bibcite 2)